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APA 6th Edition Citation Style: About APA 6th


What is American Psychological Association (APA) style?

  • APA Style was developed by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing.
  • APA style is a set of rules for how you credit sources by writing citations and references. 
  • The rules change depending on the type/format of a source (e.g. an article with two authors, a book with no date or an article with DOI etc.).
  • APA style is used for: term papers; research reports; empirical studies; literature reviews; theoretical articles; methodological articles and case studies.

What are in-text citations and references?

Giving credit to a source is a must to avoid plagiarism. In APA style, there are two ways to credit sources:

  • In-text citation: In the body of a paper when a source is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.
  • References: In an alphabetical order at the end of a paper.

In-text citation and references provide information about a source such as author and publication year that help a reader locate the source in its original form

APA 6th Edition Citation Style Manuals @ USEK Library

USEK APA 6th Manual for Master's Students

USEK APA 6th Manual for PHD Students

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DOI and URL Flowchart

This flowchart, published by APA, simplifies when to use a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a URL (Uniform Resource Locator).


Online Resources

This Guide is based on