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APA 6th Edition Citation Style: In-text citation: Author (s)

Citing an Author or Authors

  • Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand (&) in parentheses.

 

Example:
Research by Khoury and Farah (1994) supported...
(Khoury & Farah, 1994)
  • List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.

  • Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.

 

Example:
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)

 

  • In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

 

Example:
(Kernis et al., 1993)

 

  • Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

 

 

Example:
Harris et al. (2001) argued...
(Harris et al., 2001)
  • If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses.
  • Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
  • APA style calls for capitalizing important words in titles when they are written in the text (but not when they are written in reference lists).

 

Example:
 ("Using References," 2001).

  • If the author is an organization, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

 

Example:
According to the American Psychological Association (2000), ...

 

  • If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

 

Example:
First citation: (Holy Spirit University of Kaslik [USEK], 2020)
Second citation: (USEK, 2020)

  • When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list (sorted alphabetically), separated by a semi-colon.

 

Example:
(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)

 

  • When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works from the same author, list the years of publication in sequence, with the earliest first. Provide in-press citations last. Only list author’s last name once for each list of dates. 

 

Example:
(Hoffa, 1956, 1962, 1975)

 

  • Following this pattern, multiple works from multiple authors can be included within a single parenthetical. Separate authors' sources with a semicolon.

  • Note, however, that the authors' names should be provided in the order they appear in the reference list regardless of when their sources were published.

 

Example:
(Jones, 2010, 2018, in press; Smith, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006; Zepf, 2019)

 

  • To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.

 

 

Example:
(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)

  • If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

 

Example:
Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...

 

  • When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword in-text, cite the appropriate authors and year as usual.

 

 

 Example:
(Funk & Kolln, 1992)